
Microsoft Excel and Features 

A
spreadsheet is used to manipulate rows and columns of numbers and perform
calculations on these (which can be simple arithmetic or use complicated
formulae). Spreadsheet packages are also very good at producing stylish
charts and graphs of the data in a spreadsheet. Excel worksheet divided into
rows and columns. A worksheet contains maximum 255 columns (A..IV) and 65536
rows. The editable area of worksheet is known as cell for example (a1,b1,c2
etc).
About
workbooks and worksheets
In
Microsoft Excel, a workbook is the file in which you work and store your
data. Because each workbook can contain many sheets, you can organize
various kinds of related information in a single file. Use worksheets to
list and analyze data. You can enter and edit data on several worksheets
simultaneously and perform calculations based on data from multiple
worksheets. When you create a chart, you can place the chart on the
worksheet with its related data or on a separate chart sheet. The names of
the sheets appear on tabs at the bottom of the workbook window. To move from
sheet to sheet, click the sheet tabs. The name of the active sheet is bold.
Workspace
A
workspace file saves information about all open workbooks, such as their
locations, window sizes, and screen positions. When you open a workspace
file by using the Open command (File menu), Microsoft Excel opens each
workbook saved in the workspace. The workspace file does not contain the
workbooks themselves, and you must continue to save changes you make to the
individual workbooks.

Open the workbooks you want to open as a group.

Size and position the workbook windows as you
want them to appear the next time you use the workbooks.

On the File menu, click Save Workspace.

In the File name box, enter a name for the
workspace file.
To open
the workbooks each time you start Microsoft Excel, save the workspace file
in the XLStart folder in your Microsoft Excel folder. Save only the
workspace file, not the workbook files, in the XLStart folder.
Types of
data available in Excel
Before you
enter data you need to know how excel handles it. Excel recognizes five
different types of data: numbers dates, times, text/label, and formulas.
Numbers
Numbers
are values that can be calculated. They can consist of the numerals 0 to 9,
with a decimal point (a period) as a separator for decimal places and with
commas as separators for thousands. Numbers can start with a dollar sign ($)
or other currency symbol, or with a + or – sign. They can end with a % sign;
They can also enclosed in parenthesis (as an alternative to the –sign, for
indicating negative numbers).
You
control the display of numbers by formatting the cells that contain them.
For example, you could format a cell to display currency amounts with two
decimal places.
Date
Excel uses
slashes when displaying dates that need them, but you can use hyphens when
entering dates . for example, birth 11/28/1999 and 11281999 will be stored
correctly.
Time
Click the
cell where you want to enter data. Type the data and press ENTER or TAB.
Use a
slash or a hyphen to separate the parts of a date; for example, type 9/5/96
or Jun96.To enter a time based on the 12hour clock, type a space and then
a or p after the time; for example, 9:00 p. Otherwise, Microsoft Excel
enters the time as AM.
Formulas
Formulas
are mathematical formulas telling excel to perform calculations on data in
cell., for example , to add the data in the cells A1,B2, and C3 and display
the result in cell D4, You would enter the formula +a1+b2+c3 in cell d4.
Text/Label
Excel
considers any data that it does not recognize as number , date, time, or
formula to be text. This is a wide brief; in practice, it means that data
containing letters (other than cell addresses, A.M, or P.M., and so on.)
will be treated as text. For example, if you enter a list of employees’
names, positions, and work histories, excel will treat them as text.
About
Toolbars
Toolbars
allow you to organize the commands in Microsoft Excel the way you want so
that you can find and use them quickly. For example, you can add and remove
menus and buttons, create your own custom toolbars, hide or display
toolbars, and move toolbars. In previous versions of Microsoft Excel,
toolbars contained only buttons. Now toolbars can contain buttons, menus, or
a combination of both.
The menu
bar is a special toolbar at the top of the screen that contains menus such
as File, Edit, and View. The default menu bar contains menus and commands
for working with worksheets. If you're working with a chart sheet or an
embedded chart, the chart menu bar is displayed instead. You can customize
the menu bars just like any builtin toolbar; for example, you can add and
remove buttons and menus.
Some menu
commands have images next to them so you can quickly associate the command
with the corresponding toolbar button. If you want easier access to a
command, create a toolbar button for it by using the Customize dialog box
(Tools menu).
When you
quit Microsoft Excel, changes you made to the menu bar and builtin
toolbars, any custom toolbars you created, and the toolbars currently
displayed are saved in a toolbars settings file in your Windows folder. This
settings file is saved as username
8.xlb,
where username is your Windows or network login name. If your computer is
not connected to a network or not set up with a login prompt, the settings
file is saved as excel8.xlb. The toolbar configuration saved in this file is
used by default each time you start Microsoft Excel.. If you frequently use
a particular set of toolbars, you can save the configuration in a separate
toolbars settings file so that you don't have to redisplay and arrange the
toolbars each time. Toolbars you create or customize are available to all
workbooks on your own system. To ensure that a custom toolbar is always
available with a specific workbook, you can attach the toolbar to the
workbook.
To Start
Excel
On the
Start menu's Programs menu. To start Excel:
Constructing a simple Excel worksheet
You are
now going to design a very simple Excel spreadsheet to calculate your net
income after tax has been deducted from your gross income. This exercise
shows you the basic principle behind using spreadsheets, using a formula
to make calculations. You need do this section only if you think you may
want to set up your own spreadsheet (as opposed to simply using a
spreadsheet someone else has set up for you).
As a brief
illustration:
First,
open a new blank worksheet:
To give
the new worksheet a meaningful name:
To give
meaningful labels to cells on your worksheet:

Click in cell C3 (the cell reference C3 appears at the top left of the screen).

In cell C3 type Gross Income. (Don't
worry that the text spills over into Column D).

Move to cell C4 and type Tax Free
Allowance.

In C5 type Taxable Income.

In C6 type Tax Paid

In C7 type Net Income.
To adjust
the column width to fit the text you have typed:

Select (highlight) column C, by clicking
anywhere on the grey area of the cell containing the column heading 'C'.

From the Format menu, choose Column
and then AutoFit Selection.
Now set up
the formulae to calculate your net income. Gross Income minus Tax Free
Allowance gives the Taxable Income. Tax is calculated at a certain rate (say
30% of the Taxable Income) and the Tax Paid is then deducted from the Gross
Income to give the Net Income. To translate this into Excel's terms:

In D3, type as your Gross Income 9000
(don't worry at the moment that this doesn't have a pound sign).

In D4, type as your Tax Free Allowance
3500.

In D5 type the formula +D3D4 and
then press Enter. (The initial plus sign denotes that the cell contains
a formula rather than a literal value). This particular formula causes
the value in cell D5 to become that of D3 minus D4,
so D5 should now contain 5500.
If cell
D5 does not display 5500, check and correct the formula. To do
this:

Click in D5 and notice that the formula
appears in a box underneath the Formatting Toolbar (just to the right of
the box that shows the cell reference).

To correct a formula, click on the formula and
edit it. When ready, press Enter.
Now
calculate the Tax Paid (30% of the Taxable Income D5), using '*' as
the multiplication sign and '/' for division, i.e.:

In D6 type +D5*(30/100).

If D6 does not calculate the correct
tax, 1650, correct the formula (in the way described above).

Now calculate the Net Income in D7 (as
Gross Income minus Tax Paid). The answer should be 7350.
If you
wish, now format the cells containing monetary figures to show currency. To
do this:

Select (highlight) the whole of column D.

Click the Currency Style button. If the
values in the cells are too large to display they will show as ######
and you need to increase the width of column D.

Now try changing your Gross Income and Tax Free
Allowance.
This
spreadsheet is rather inflexible because if the Tax Rate changes you will
have to provide a new formula in D6. It can be improved as follows:
The above
illustrates a common use of spreadsheets  to ask 'what if' questions (eg
'What would happen to my income if the Tax Rate went up to 50%'). The
spreadsheets you have seen are very simple. Complex systems (eg in economics
or physical sciences) can be modeled using enormous spreadsheets and complex
calculations and hypotheses can be tested or predictions made by changing
the values of variables on the spreadsheet.
Types of
series that Microsoft Excel can fill in for you
You can
automatically fill in several types of series by selecting cells and
dragging the fill handle or by using the Series command (point to Fill on
the Edit menu, and then click Series). To select the type of series from a
shortcut menu, select the starting values for the series; then hold down the
right mouse button as you drag the fill handle.
Time: A
time series can include increments of days, weeks, or months that you
specify, or it can include repeating sequences such as weekdays, month
names, or quarters. For example, the initial time selections in the
following table result in the series shown.
Initial
selection Extended series
9:00
10:00, 11:00, 12:00
Mon Tue,
Wed, Thu
Monday
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday
Jan Feb,
Mar, Apr
Jan, Apr
Jul, Oct, Jan
Jan96,
Apr96 Jul96, Oct96, Jan97
15Jan,
15Apr 15Jul, 15Oct
1994, 1995
1996, 1997, 1998
AutoFill:
The
AutoFill feature extends several types of series as shown in the following
table. The fourth example shows how Microsoft Excel can extend part of a
selection (Product 1) and copy another part (On backorder). The last example
is a bestfit trend.
Note:
Items separated by commas are in adjacent cells.
Initial
selection Extended series
Mon Tue,
Wed, Thu,...
1Jan,
1Mar 1May, 1Jul, 1Sep,...
Qtr3 (or
Q3 or Quarter3) Qtr4, Qtr1, Qtr2,...
Product 1,
On backorder Product 2, On backorder, Product 3, On backorder,...
text1,
textA text2, textA, text3, textA,...
1st Period
2nd Period, 3rd Period,...
Product 1
Product 2, Product 3,...
1, 2 3, 4,
5, 6,...
1, 3, 4
5.66, 7.16, 8.66,...
Linear
and Growth series
When you
create a linear series by dragging the fill handle, Microsoft Excel
increases or decreases values by a constant value that is based on the
selected starting values. When you create a growth series by selecting the
Growth Trend command from the shortcut menu, Microsoft Excel multiplies
values by a constant factor. For information about linear and growth series
that you can create with the Series command, click .
Initial
selection Extended linear series
1, 2 3, 4,
5
1, 3 5, 7,
9
100, 95
90, 85
Initial
selection Extended growth series
1,2 4, 8,
16
1,3 9, 27,
81
2,3 4.5,
6.75, 10.125
Auto
Formatting Worksheets
For
formatting tables quickly , try Excel’s AutoFormat Featureswhich , like
word’s table autoformat feature. Offers sundry predefined table formats
encompassing all formatting from fonts through borders and shading. To use
AutoFormat on selected cells or on a range of cells surrounded by blank
cells:

Choose Format > AutoFormat to display The
AutoFormat dialog box.

Choose a format from the Table format list box.
Watch the sample box for a preview of how your table will look.

If you want to apply only some of the
formatting characteristics , click the option button to display the six
options in the formats to apply group box at the bottom of the
AutoFormat dialog box. Clear the check boxes for the options you do not
want to apply.

Click the ok button to close the AutoFormat
dialog box and apply the Auto Formatting you choose.
Edit cell
contents

Doubleclick the cell
that contains the data you want to edit Or Press F2 key.

Make any changes to
the cell contents.

To enter your
changes, press ENTER.
To cancel
your changes, press ESC.
Clear
or delete cells, rows, or columns
When you
delete cells, Microsoft Excel removes them from the worksheet and shifts the
surrounding cells to fill the space. When you clear cells, you remove the
cell contents (formulas and data), formats, or comments, but leave the blank
cells on the worksheet.
Starting
Excel and opening the example spreadsheet
Clear contents, formats, or comments from cells

Select the cells,
rows, or columns you want to clear.

On the Edit menu,
point to Clear, and then click All, Contents, Formats, or Comments.

If you click a cell and then press DELETE or
BACKSPACE, Microsoft Excel removes the cell contents but does not remove
any comments or cell formats.

If you clear a cell, Microsoft Excel removes
the contents, formats, comments, or all three from a cell. The value of
a cleared cell is 0 (zero), and a formula that refers to that cell will
receive a value of 0.
To remove
all comments from a worksheet, click Go To on the Edit menu, click Special,
and then click Comments. Then point to Clear on the Edit menu, and click
Comments
Delete cells, rows, or columns

Select the cells,
rows, or columns you want to delete.

On the Edit menu,
click Delete. OR press delete key
Change
column width and row height
You can
adjust the width of columns and the height of rows. You can also define the
default width of columns for a worksheet. Defining the default column width
adjusts all columns to the same width, except columns that have previously
been changed.
Change column width

Drag the boundary on
the right side of the column heading until the column is the width you
want.

The
displayed column width is the average number of digits 09 of the standard
font that fit in a cell.

To change the column
width for multiple columns, select the columns you want to change. Then
drag a boundary at the right of a selected column heading. To change the
column width for all columns on the worksheet, click the Select All
button, and then drag the boundary of any column heading.

To make the column
width fit the contents, doubleclick the boundary to the right of the
column heading.
Change row height

Drag the boundary below the row heading until
the row is the height you want.

To change the row height for multiple rows,
select the rows you want to change. Then drag a boundary below a
selected row heading. To change the row height for all rows on the
worksheet, click the Select All button, and then drag the boundary below
any row heading.

To make the row height fit the contents,
doubleclick the boundary below the row heading.
Define the default column width

To define the default column width for all
worksheets in a workbook, select all worksheets.

On the Format menu, point to Column, and then
click Standard Width.

Type a new measurement.
The number
that appears in the Standard column width box is the average number of
digits 09 of the standard font that fit in a cell. To define the default
column width for all new workbooks and worksheets, create a workbook
template and a worksheet template.
Copying
and Moving Data
You can
copy and move data in excel by using Cut, Copy, and paste (as discussed in
previous) or draganddrop. There are two quick points to note here :
When
pasting arange of data, you need only select the upperleft anchor cell of
the destination, but be sure excel won’t overwrite any important data in the
other cells that the range will cover.
To use
drag & drop, select the cell or range to move or copy, and then move the
mouse pointer to one of its borders.
Go To
(Edit menu)
In
Microsoft Excel, scrolls through the worksheet and selects the cell, range,
or cells with special characteristics you specify. Press Ctrl+G or Choose
Alt+E+Goto and then type the cell address and press enter key.
Cells Formatting
Applies
formats to the selected cells. This command might not available if the sheet
is protected. To see a complete list of builtin number formats, click
Cells on the Format menu. The Number tab provides number formats not found
on the Formatting toolbar, including accounting, date, time, fraction,
scientific, and text formats. The Special category includes formats for ZIP
Codes and phone numbers. You can also customize these formats. To change the
way numbers, dates, and times are displayed, you can change the number
format of selected cells. Changing the number format does not affect the
actual data values used in calculations. You can apply some number formats by
using the number formatting buttons on the Formatting toolbar. For example,
click the Currency Style button to display 35561 as $ 35,561.00.
Excel
Functions
Syntax:
SUM(number1,number2, ...)
Adds all
the numbers in a range of cells.
Number1,
number2, ... are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want the total value or
sum.

Numbers, logical
values, and text representations of numbers that you type directly into
the list of arguments are counted. See the first and second examples
following.

If an argument is an
array or reference, only numbers in that array or reference are counted.
Empty cells, logical values, text, or error values in the array or
reference are ignored. See the third example following.

Arguments that are
error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers cause
errors.
Examples
SUM(3, 2)
equals 5:SUM("3", 2, TRUE) equals 6 because the text values are translated
into numbers, and the logical value TRUE is translated into the number
1.Unlike the previous example, if A1 contains "3" and B1 contains TRUE,
then:
SUM(A1,
B1, 2) equals 2 because references to nonnumeric values in references are
not translated. If cells A2:E2 contain 5, 15, 30, 40, and 50:SUM(A2:C2)
equals 50
SUM(B2:E2,
15) equals 150
Excel
Functions(Average)
Returns
the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments:
Syntax
AVERAGE(number1,number2, ...)
Number1,
number2, ... are 1 to 30 numeric arguments for which you want the average.
Remarks

The arguments must be either numbers or names,
arrays, or references that contain numbers.

If an array or reference argument contains
text, logical values, or empty cells, those values are ignored; however,
cells with the value zero are included.
When
averaging cells, keep in mind the difference between empty cells and those
containing the value zero, especially if you have cleared the Zero values
check box on the View tab (Options command, Tools menu). Empty cells are not
counted, but zero values are.
Examples
If A1:A5
is named Scores and contains the numbers 10, 7, 9, 27, and 2, then:
AVERAGE(A1:A5) equals 11
AVERAGE(Scores) equals 11
AVERAGE(A1:A5, 5) equals 10
AVERAGE(A1:A5) equals SUM(A1:A5)/COUNT(A1:A5) equals 11
If C1:C3
is named Other Scores and contains the numbers 4, 18, and 7, then:
AVERAGE(Scores, Other Scores) equals 10.5
Excel
Functions (Max)
Returns
the largest value in a set of values. Syntax:
MAX(number1,number2,...)
Number1,number2,... are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want to find the
maximum value.

You can specify
arguments that are numbers, empty cells, logical values, or text
representations of numbers. Arguments that are error values or text that
cannot be translated into numbers cause errors.

If an argument is an
array or reference, only numbers in that array or reference are used.
Empty cells, logical values, or text in the array or reference are
ignored. If logical values and text must not be ignored, use MAXA
instead.

If the arguments
contain no numbers, MAX returns 0 (zero).
Examples
If A1:A5
contains the numbers 10, 7, 9, 27, and 2, then:
MAX(A1:A5)
equals 27
MAX(A1:A5,30) equals 30
Excel
Functions (Min)
Returns
the smallest number in a set of values. Syntax: MIN(number1,number2,
...)
Number1,
number2,... are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want to find the minimum
value.

You can specify
arguments that are numbers, empty cells, logical values, or text
representations of numbers. Arguments that are error values or text that
cannot be translated into numbers cause errors.

If an argument is an
array or reference, only numbers in that array or reference are used.
Empty cells, logical values, or text in the array or reference are
ignored. If logical values and text should not be ignored, use MINA
instead.

If the arguments
contain no numbers, MIN returns 0.
Examples
If A1:A5
contains the numbers 10, 7, 9, 27, and 2, then:
MIN(A1:A5)
equals 2
MIN(A1:A5,
0) equals 0
MIN is
similar to MAX. Also see the examples for MAX.
Excel
Functions (Round)
Rounds a
number to a specified number of digits. Syntax
ROUND(number,num_digits)
Number is
the number you want to round.
Num_digits
specifies the number of digits to which you want to round number.
· If
num_digits is greater than 0 (zero), then number is rounded to the specified
number of decimal places.
· If
num_digits is 0, then number is rounded to the nearest integer.
· If
num_digits is less than 0, then number is rounded to the left of the decimal
point.
Examples
ROUND(2.15, 1) equals 2.2
ROUND(2.149, 1) equals 2.1
ROUND(1.475, 2) equals 1.48
ROUND(21.5, 1) equals 20
Excel
Functions if()
Returns
one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if
it evaluates to FALSE.Use IF to conduct conditional tests on values and
formulas.
Syntax 1 :IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)
Logical_test is any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or
FALSE.
Value_if_true is the value that is returned if logical_test is TRUE. If
logical_test is TRUE and value_if_true is omitted, TRUE is returned.
Value_if_true can be another formula. Value_if_false is the value that is
returned if logical_test is FALSE. If logical_test is FALSE and
value_if_false is omitted, FALSE is returned. Value_if_false can be another
formula.
Remarks

Up to seven IF
functions can be nested as value_if_true and value_if_false arguments to
construct more elaborate tests. See the following last example.

When the
value_if_true and value_if_false arguments are evaluated, IF returns the
value returned by those statements.

If any of the
arguments to IF are arrays, every element of the array is evaluated when
the IF statement is carried out. If some of the value_if_true and
value_if_false arguments are actiontaking functions, all of the actions
are taken.
Examples
In the
following example, if the value in cell A10 is 100, then logical_test is
TRUE, and the total value for the range B5:B15 is calculated. Otherwise,
logical_test is FALSE, and empty text ("") is returned that blanks the cell
that contains the IF function.
IF(A10=100,SUM(B5:B15),"")
Suppose an
expense worksheet contains in B2:B4 the following data for "Actual Expenses"
for January, February, and March: 1500, 500, 500. C2:C4 contains the
following data for "Predicted Expenses" for the same periods: 900, 900, 925.
You can
write a formula to check whether you are over budget for a particular month,
generating text for a message with the following formulas:
IF(B2>C2,"Over Budget","OK") equals "Over Budget"
IF(B3>C3,"Over Budget","OK") equals "OK"
Suppose
you want to assign letter grades to numbers referenced by the name
AverageScore. See the following table.
If
AverageScore is Then return
Greater
than 89 A
From 80 to
89 B
From 70 to
79 C
From 60 to
69 D
Less than
60 F
You can
use the following nested IF function:
IF(AverageScore>89,"A",IF(AverageScore>79,"B",
IF(AverageScore>69,"C",IF(AverageScore>59,"D","F"))))
In the
preceding example, the second IF statement is also the value_if_false
argument to the first IF statement. Similarly, the third IF statement is the
value_if_false argument to the second IF statement. For example, if the
first logical_test (Average>89) is TRUE, "A" is returned. If the first
logical_test is FALSE, the second IF statement is evaluated, and so on.
Excel
Functions count()
Counts the
number of cells that contain numbers and numbers within the list of
arguments. Use COUNT to get the number of entries in a number field in a
range or array of numbers Syntax:COUNT(value1,value2, ...)
Value1,
value2, ... are 1 to 30 arguments that can contain or refer to a variety of
different types of data, but only numbers are counted.

Arguments that are
numbers, dates, or text representations of numbers are counted;
arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into
numbers are ignored.

If an argument is an
array or reference, only numbers in that array or reference are counted.
Empty cells, logical values, text, or error values in the array or
reference are ignored. If you need to count logical values, text, or
error values, use the COUNT function.
Examples
In the
following example,COUNT(A1:A7) equals 3,COUNT(A4:A7) equals 2
COUNT(A1:A7, 2) equals 4
Excel
Functions or()
Returns
TRUE if any argument is TRUE; returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE.
Syntax:
OR(logical1,logical2,...)
Logical1,logical2,... are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be
either TRUE or FALSE.

The arguments must
evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or in arrays or
references that contain logical values.

If an array or
reference argument contains text, numbers, or empty cells, those values
are ignored.

If the specified
range contains no logical values, OR returns the #VALUE! error value.

You can use an OR
array formula to see if a value occurs in an array. To enter an array
formula, press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER in Microsoft Excel 97 for Windows or
+ENTER in Microsoft Excel 97 for the Macintosh.
Examples
OR(TRUE)
equals TRUE
OR(1+1=1,2+2=5) equals FALSE
If A1:A3
contains the values TRUE, FALSE, and TRUE, then:
OR(A1:A3)
equals TRUE
Excel
Functions and()
Returns
TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE; returns FALSE if one or more arguments
is FALSE. Syntax:AND(logical1,logical2, ...)
Logical1,
logical2, ... are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either
TRUE or FALSE.

The arguments must
evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or the arguments must
be arrays or references that contain logical values.

If an array or
reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are
ignored.

If the specified
range contains no logical values, AND returns the #VALUE! error value.
Examples
AND(TRUE,
TRUE) equals TRUE
AND(TRUE,
FALSE) equals FALSE
AND(2+2=4,
2+3=5) equals TRUE
If B1:B3
contains the values TRUE, FALSE, and TRUE, then:
AND(B1:B3)
equals FALSE
If B4
contains a number between 1 and 100, then:
AND(1<B4,
B4<100) equals TRUE
Suppose
you want to display B4 if it contains a number strictly between 1 and 100,
and you want to display a message if it is not. If B4 contains 104, then:
IF(AND(1<B4, B4<100), B4, "The value is out of range.") equals "The value is
out of range."
If B4
contains 50, then:
IF(AND(1<B4, B4<100), B4, "The value is out of range.") equals 50
Sorting
If you
previously sorted a list on the same worksheet, Microsoft Excel uses the
same sorting options unless you change them.
1 Click a
cell in the column you would like to sort by.
2 Click
Sort Ascending .
Note In a
PivotTable, Microsoft Excel uses the selected field to sort items in
ascending alphabetic order. Numbers are sorted from lowest to highest value.
Create a
chart
You can
display Microsoft Excel data graphically in a chart. Charts are linked to
the worksheet data they are created from and are updated when you change the
worksheet data.You can create charts from cells or ranges that are not next
to one another.
You can
create either an embedded chart or a chart sheet.

Select the cells that
contain the data that you want to appear in the chart.

If you want the
column and row labels to appear in the chart, include the cells that
contain them in the selection.

Click Chart Wizard .

Follow the
instructions in the Chart Wizard.
If your
worksheet has multiple levels of row and column labels, your chart can also
display those levels. When you create the chart, include the row and column
labels for each level in your selection. To preserve the hierarchy when you
add data to the chart, change the cell range used to create the chart.
Select A Different Chart Type
For most
2D charts, you can change the chart type of either a data series or the
entire chart. For bubble charts, you can change only the type of the entire
chart. For most 3D charts, changing the chart type affects the entire
chart. For 3D bar and column charts, you can change a data series to the
cone, cylinder, or pyramid chart type.

Click the chart you
want to change.

To change the chart
type of a data series, click the data series.

To change the chart
type of the entire chart, don't click anything on the chart.

On the Chart menu,
click Chart Type.

On the Standard Types
or Custom Types tab, click the chart type you want.
To apply
the cone, cylinder, or pyramid chart type to a 3D bar or column data
series, click Cylinder, Cone, or Pyramid in the Chart type box on the
Standard Types tab, and then select the Apply to selection check box.
Note
If you clear
the Apply to selection check box, Microsoft Excel changes the chart type for
the entire chart even if a single data series is selected.
Returns a
subtotal in a list or database. It is generally easier to create a list with
subtotals using the Subtotals command (Data menu). Once the subtotal list is
created, you can modify it by editing the SUBTOTAL function.
Excel
Functions subtotal()
Syntax:SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,ref2,…)
Function_num is the number 1 to 11 that specifies which function to use in
calculating subtotals within a list.
Function_Num Function
1 AVERAGE
2 COUNT
3 COUNTA
4 MAX
5 MIN
6 PRODUCT
7 STDEV
8 STDEVP
Function_Num Function
9 SUM
10 VAR
11 VARP
Ref1,
ref2, are 1 to 29 ranges or references for which you want the subtotal.
Remarks

If there are other subtotals within ref1,
ref2,… (or nested subtotals), these nested subtotals are ignored to
avoid double counting.

SUBTOTAL will ignore any hidden rows that
result from a list being filtered. This is important when you want to
subtotal only the visible data that results from a list that you have
filtered.

If any of the references are 3D references,
SUBTOTAL returns the #VALUE! error value.
Example
SUBTOTAL(9,C3:C5) will generate a subtotal of the cells C3:C5 using the SUM
function
Display a
subset of rows in a list by using filters
You can
apply filters to only one list on a worksheet at a time.

Click a cell in the
list you want to filter.

On the Data menu,
point to Filter, and then click AutoFilter.

To display only the
rows that contain a specific value, click the arrow in the column that
contains the data you want to display.

Click the value.

To apply an
additional condition based on a value in another column, repeat steps 3
and 4 in the other column.
To filter
the list by two values in the same column, or to apply comparison operators
other than Equals, click the arrow in the column, and then click Custom. For
information about displaying rows by comparing values.
Notes

When you apply a
filter to a column, the only filters available for other columns are the
values visible in the filtered list.

You can apply up to
two conditions to a column with AutoFilter. If you need to apply three
or more conditions to a column, use calculated values as your criteria,
or copy records to another location, you can use advanced filters.
Excel
Functions GOAL SEAK
Find a
specific result for a cell by adjusting the value of one other cell

On the Tools menu,
click Goal Seek.

In the Set cell box,
enter the reference for the cell that contains the formula you want to
resolve.

In the To value box,
type the result you want.

In the By changing
cell box, enter the reference for the cell that contains the value you
want to adjust.



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